What is Ethical Hacking?

Ethical hacking involves an authorized attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer system, application, or data. Carrying out an ethical hack involves duplicating strategies and actions of malicious attackers. This practice helps to identify security vulnerabilities which can then be resolved before a malicious attacker has the opportunity to exploit them.

Also known as “white hats,” ethical hackers are security experts that perform these assessments. The proactive work they do helps to improve an organization’s security posture. With prior approval from the organization or owner of the IT asset, the mission of ethical hacking is opposite from malicious hacking.

Ikigai is a Japanese concept that combines the terms iki, meaning “alive” or “life,” and gai, meaning “benefit” or “value.” Collectively, these terms mean something that gives your life value, meaning, or purpose.

The concept of ikigai as a goal in life, with both personal and social dimensions, is reflected in the well-known ikigai diagram. This chart includes overlapping spheres covering

  • What you love
  • What you are good at
  • What the world needs
  • What you can get paid for

What you love

This area includes what we do or experience that brings us the most joy in life and makes…

What is Test Automation?

Automation testing is a Software testing technique to test and compare the actual outcome with the expected outcome. This can be achieved by writing test scripts or using any automation testing tool. Test automation is used to automate repetitive tasks and other testing tasks which are difficult to perform manually.

Why Test Automation?

Test Automation is the best way to increase the effectiveness, test coverage, and execution speed in software testing. Automated software testing is important due to the following reasons.

  • Manual Testing of all workflows, all fields, all negative scenarios is time and money consuming
  • It is difficult to test for multi-lingual…

What is the evaluation?

Evaluation role is to access designs and test systems to ensure that they actually behave as we expect and meet user requirements.
Ideally, evaluation should occur throughout the design life cycle, with the results of the evaluation feeding back into modifications to the design.

Goals of evaluation

Evaluation has three main goals.

  1. Assess the extent of system functionality

The system’s functionality is important in that it must accord with the user’s requirements. Evaluation at this level may measure the user’s performance with the system to assess the effectiveness of the system in supporting the task.

e.g - if a filing clerk is used…


Learnability principles are concerned with interactive system features, which aid novice users to learn quickly and also allows steady progression to expertise. There are five principles.

  • Predictability - Support for the user to determine the effect of future action based on past interaction history.
  • Synthesizability - Support for the user to assess the effect of past operations on the current state.
  • Familiarity- The extent to which a user’s knowledge and experience in other real-world or computer-based domains can be applied when interacting with a new system.
  • Generalizability - Support for the user to extend knowledge of specific interaction within and…

Designing For Diversity

Normally interfaces are is design for average users excluding not so average users. But human capabilities are different. Users have different needs and limitations. So it is important to consider many factors when we want to apply the universal design. So we need to consider about Disability, Age, culture

  • Disability
  • Age
  • Culture


Visual Impairment

Nowadays the standard interface is graphical. The use of this reduces the possibilities for visually impaired users.

How to help?

  • Peripherals - screen readers, braille output. Screen readers and braille output are far more restricted in interpreting the graphical interface, meaning that access to computers, and…

Universal Design Principles


The 7 Principles of Universal Design were developed in 1997 by a working group of architects, product designers, engineers and environmental design researchers, led by the late Ronald Mace in the North Carolina State University(NCAU).


To guide the design of environments, products and communications. According to the Center for Universal Design in NCSU, the Principles “may be applied to evaluate existing designs, guide the design process and educate both designers and consumers about the characteristics of more usable The design is useful to people with a range of abilities and appealing to all. No user is excluded or…

Multi-modal interaction

Multimodal human-computer interaction refers to the “interaction with the virtual and physical environment through natural modes of communication”, This implies that multimodal interaction enables a more free and natural communication, interfacing users with automated systems in both input and output.

There are five senses, sight, sound, touch, taste and smell. Sight, hearing, and touch are the most important in human-computer interaction. We can receive information from the computer through sight, hearing and touch. we can send information to the computer through touch(e.g mouse), sight (e.g eye-gaze system such as using eyes movement).

Some of the alternative modes of human-computer interaction…

SDLC is a process followed for a software project, within a software organization. It consists of a detailed plan describing how to develop, maintain, replace and alter or enhance specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.

The following figure is a graphical representation of the various stages of a typical SDLC.

  1. Identify the Current Problems

“What are the current problems?” This stage of the SDLC means getting input from all stakeholders, including customers, salespeople, industry experts, and programmers. …

What is software licenses?

A software license is a licensing agreement that gives an individual, company, or organization permission to use the software. For example, in most cases, it is illegal to acquire one copy of a program and copy it across multiple computers. Instead of requiring dozens, hundreds, or thousands of licensed copies of a program individually, companies often buy licenses for sites that scale according to the number of installed users.

Types of Licenses

  1. Free Software Licenses - A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software broad rights to modify and redistribute that software. …

Ovindu Archana Nambukara

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